This field can be distributed over four sub-fields: gas, inorganic, organic and electrochemistry.
The LNE is responsible for all the studies carried out in this field.
The studies carried out in this area cover dosimetry and radioactivity as well as the neutrons dosimetry.
This section presents the studies with regard to the "mise en pratique" and developments in the field of dimensional metrology with artifacts.
This field covers different quantities such as: mass, force, torque, static and dynamic pressure, viscosity, gas and fluid flow (water and fluid different from water).
This field includes the national references as well as the means for transfer to the industry (calibrating benches) for radiometry and photometry.
This field comprises the measurements of temperatures with and without contact, the thermal quantities and hygrometry.
The studies are concentrating on the frequency standards in the fields of microwaves and optics, on the development of time scales together with the time comparisons and metrology of the inertial sensors.